Virtual Water Museum

Dhunge dhara (Water Spouts)

Dhunge dhara once met all the domestic water needs of the majority of Kathmandu’s residents. The earliest dhunge dhara still in use is in Patan. It was built in 570 CE. Open conduits transfer water from springs and/or aquifers to taps located in a depressed rectilinear pit usually 10 to 30 feet below ground level. A survey in 2001 found 350 spouts in Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur. In August 2001, 250 of them collectively yielded about 10 million litres of water a day. Their yield generally decreases by about two thirds in the dry months. Some of the taps provide good quality water, while that from others is of low quality. Many dhunge dhara have deteriorated due to poor maintenance. Others have been damaged by urban encroachment.

water museum